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Windows Server 2012 Activation Problems, Questions and Solutions

[Please note this article deals with general questions related to Windows Server 2012 Product Activation. For tips on activating the Windows 2012 GUI from Server Core, try this article instead.]

I've heard multiple reports of people having issues with Windows Server 2012 Product Activation. Here are a few hints on how to resolve:
-Ensure your server is connected the the internet
-Ensure correct DNS resolution is available
-Resolve any outstanding routing issues (Firewall or IPS blocking your new server? DHCP misconfigured?)
-Attempt product activation from the command line:

slmgr.vbs -ipk [enter your product key without brackets]
slmgr.vbs -ato

This is still a new OS, but I've yet to experience an issue that wasn't resolved by one of these for in cases where the product key is valid.

Other Helpful Commands:

slmgr.vbs /dlv Displays the active product key
slmgr.vbs /upk Uninstall the current product key

Frequently Asked Questions Related to Windows Server 2012 Product Activation:
What is KMS?
KMS stands for Key Management Service, and allows for product license activation to occur within the local network of your organization without the need to contact an external Microsoft licensing server. KMS runs incredibly light, so although I would typically recommend for security purposes using a small dedicated server or VM for licensing purposes and keeping it as far away from everyday normal network traffic as possible, you can easily use the same box to handle Terminal Services licensing, printer services, and other tasks best addressed on your local network. KMS handles licensing for Windows Server as well as MS Office suite applications, however you must meet minimum licensing utilization thresholds to qualify. To be clear, to use KMS you have to activate or have activated at least this many computers, servers and/or Office products, depending on what product you will be using KMS for. So if you want to use KMS for Windows Server, you will need to have activated 5 server licenses already, or intend to activate at least 5 licenses immediately. Here is a list of all the minimum thresholds :

To activate Windows Server 2012/2008 - 5 servers are required
To activate Windows 8/7/Vista - 25 computers are required
To activate Microsoft Office - 5 computers must be licensed for Office, Visio, Project, or some combination thereof

2012 functionality in KMS is available as an update for those already operating a KMS server for 2008 and Windows 7.

Here is a time-saving list of KMS activation keys for Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008, Windows 8, Windows 7 and Vista.